seemed literally an endangered variety only a few years ago,
but seems to be recovering worldwide in both popularity and
acreage. Less than 18 acres remained planted in all of France,
its homeland, by 1960. Those scarce vines were in the
appellation contrôlée of Condrieu; no other plantings were known, world over.
The viognier vine is one of the few white grape varieties that seems to prefer warmer weather, within a relatively narrow range of sesonal average temperatures of between 62° and 66° F. Its newest realm, California,
has 2,001 acres as of 2002 (although a considerable portion
is not yet mature enough to bear a commercial crop) and there
are also relatively new plantings in Australia and Brazil,
as well as other U.S. plantings in Colorado, New York, North
Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Virginia, and Washington.
The major drawback of the
viognier grape is that it is a very shy producer; among white varieties in France, it likely has the stingiest yields of any. Viognier is also somewhat
difficult to grow. Although drought tolerant, it sometimes seems almost eager to become
infected with powdery mildew, especially under damp conditions or in humid climates and rots easily, but resists Botrytis somewhat.
Like many other varietals, viognier must be harvested at its
peak of maturity in order to display its unique aroma and
flavor character. The grape's tendency to develop high sugar
but low acid can result in wines with neutral, merely vinous
flavors and high alcohol.
These cultivation difficulties combined with producer
desires to capitalize on the grape's somewhat rarity can make many Viognier wines relatively expensive.
Viognier is the only grape
used for the Northern Rhône appellations Condrieu
and Château-Grillet (one of France's smallest AOC, with less than
ten acres and only one owner). 1 Plantings of viognier in France have
expanded in recent years from the Rhône (1830 acres, with Condrieu now covering nearly 460 ac.),
to the Languedoc (3440 ac.) to smaller plantings in Roussillon (212 ac.) and Provence (272 ac.). Viognier is also sometimes
used to add fragrance and to soften and lighten syrah
in Côte Rotie, where regulations allow up to 15% white grapes with the stipulation they are co-fermented with the reds.
Probably the main attraction
of Viognier is its potentially powerful, rich, and complex
aroma that often seems like overripe apricots mixed with orange
blossoms or acacia. With as distinctive and sweet an aroma-flavor
profile as Gewürztraminer, Viognier is nevertheless usually
made in a dry style and seems to appeal more to the typical
Chardonnay drinker. The distinctive Viognier perfume holds
up even when blended with a large portion of other grapes.
The fruit usually has very deep color, but is somewhat low
in acidity. As California wineries experiment with Viognier-Chardonnays,
Viognier-Chenin Blancs, and Viognier-Colombards, this may
be the grape's ultimate destiny, as a blender.
Chardonnay and Viognier share tropical fruit
flavors and a creamy mouthfeel. Even with little
or no wood aging, Viognier can be as full-bodied
as an oaky Chardonnay, but has much more
distinctive fruit character. It also has a
typically deep golden color, as well as rich and
Smell and/or Flavor
depends upon individual tasting ability and experience
and is also affected by terroir and seasonal conditions,
as well as viticultural and enological techniques.
This list therefore is
merely suggestive and neither comprehensive nor exclusive.
orange blossom, acacia, violet,
apricot, mango, pineapple, guava, kiwi,
(light): vanilla, sweet
(heavy): oak, smoke,
|Herbal: mown hay, tobacco
Mouthfeel: creamy, rich, full, viscous
|Alcohol: heat, burning
Viognier alcohol easily gets
out-of-hand, so some vintners leave a touch of residual sugar
to mask the heat. The combination of heady aromas and sweet-hot
flavors may be overbearing to some palates. Even for those
who favor Viognier's brash personality, a little can go a
long way and a single glass may satiate one's wine thirst.
There are also occasional late-harvest and dessert versions
made that can be as headily-intriguing as the finest Sauternes.
Because the prime appeal of
Viognier is its fresh and striking aroma, it is a wine that
should be consumed young in most instances. The exception
is Château Grillet, where the grapes are harvested early
and the wine kept in oak for several months prior to bottling;
this wine has a reputation for aging up to two decades.
As to food
matches, Viognier works well with dishes that
might normally call for Gewürztraminer.
Spicy dishes, such as spicy oriental stir-frys
and even curry, especially Thai-style which is
made with coconut milk, may be accompanied and
complemented by Viognier. Also fruit salsas,
atop grilled fish or chicken, can be
miraculously tasty with Viognier.
1 Co-fermentation of grapes can result in both deeper color and a change in the wine's color spectrum, as well as aroma and flavor enhancements. BACK
1. Enjoying Viognier
2. Viognier at Tablas Creek
3. Jancis Robinson (ed), Oxford
Companion to Wine, 3rd Edition, (Oxford University Press: London) 2006
4. Benjamin Lewin, Wine Myths and Reality, (Vendage Press: Dover, DE) 2010
5. Viognier saviour Georges Vernay dies in the Rhône, (Yohan Castaing in Decanter online, May 23, 2017)
6. L. Peter Christensen, Nick K. Dokoozlian, M. Andrew Walker, James A Wolpert, et all. Wine Grape Varieties in California (University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources Publications: Oakland) 2003
7. Julia Harding, Jancis Robinson and José Vouillamoz. Wine Grapes: A Complete Guide to 1,368 Vine Varieties, Including Their Origins and Flavours. London: Allen Lane/Penguin and New York: Ecco/Harper-Collins, 2012
8. Rhône Rangers